The Effects of Bureaucracy in the Life of a Clerk in Benito Perez Galdos’ Miau

The author probes on the consequences of paperwork within the lifetime of a clerk, Don Ramon Villaamil, in Benito Perez Galdos’ Miau which was written and revealed in 1888. It’s anchored on the sociological theories of Max Weber’s idea and capabilities of paperwork (Gerth and Mills, 1961) and its disintegrating impact on the primary character and its repercussions within the multi-dimensional lifetime of the protagonist. In understanding additional the novel, the scholar author makes use of Hippolyte Taine’s three-pronged method to the contextual examine of a murals, based mostly on the features of what he referred to as race, geographical and social milieu, and historic second (

Therefore, to totally perceive the paperwork mirrored within the novel, the author traces first the historic, political and biographical lifetime of the creator and Spain within the nineteenth century. How all these artefacts affected the author to document vignettes of arduous truths within the society is remarkably fascinating to analyze.

The Spanish novelist and dramatist Benito Pérez Galdós (1843-1920) is greatest identified for his masterly therapy of the huge panorama of Spanish society in a sequence of historic and up to date novels.

Benito Pérez Galdós was born on Could 10, 1843, in Las Palmas, Canary Islands. Because of a inflexible upbringing he developed right into a shy, quick-witted boy, inquisitive about music, drama, and portray. He discovered English from an American girl whose illegitimate daughter, Sisita, was his first cousin and childhood love. One in all Galdós’s most enduring remembrances involved his affection for Sisita and the brusque intervention of his mom, who despatched him away to Madrid in 1862 to review legislation.

In Madrid, Galdós felt irresistibly drawn to the turmoil of metropolis life and shortly deserted his college programs for cafés, opera, theater, and lengthy strolls by way of the streets. Intent upon understanding all courses and kinds of Spanish society, he frequented outlying districts, open-air markets, taverns, and tenement homes. By 1865 he had begun newspaper work. His articles on parliamentary periods in Las Cortes made that newspaper well-known.

Though Galdós was a perspicacious journalist, his final intention was to present Spaniards not solely a coherent image of their day by day lives but in addition a imaginative and prescient of a brand new Spain, reborn spiritually, culturally, and economically. He believed the novel greatest suited this goal. In 1867 Galdós went to Paris, rediscovered the novels of Honoré de Balzac, and as soon as again in Spain completed his first novel, La sombra (1870), and commenced a second, La Fontana de ore (1867-1868).

Henceforth, aside from his advocacy of liberal politics, Galdós lived immersed in literary exercise. He wrote nearly 100 novels and performs, which can be categorised into three teams. The primary group contains his 46 Episodios nacionales, historic novels starting with Trafalgar (1873) and ending with Canovás (1912). They retell in story type stirring episodes of 19th-century Spanish historical past and embody Galdós’s conviction that the important thing to Spain’s current and future betterment resides in a important examination of the previous.

The second group contains Galdós’s reasonable social novels, which divide into two subgroups. The primary includes the Novelas de la primera época (1867-1878). Amongst them are Doña Perfecta (1876) and Gloria (1876-1877), which boldly depict Spain’s provincial hypocrisy and spiritual fanaticism. The second is made up of the 24 Novelas españolas contemporáneas, (1880-1915), which mark the maturity of Galdós’s artwork. In such works as La de Bringas (1884), his four-volume masterpiece Fortunata y Jacinta (1886-1887), and Misericordia (1897), Galdós harmonized his ardour for reform with the artwork of making the phantasm of actuality. Whereas treating many issues of Spanish life, he didn’t sacrifice character freedom to any social or ethical educating. Immediately, as then, his novels supply a compelling imagen de la vida.

The third group is made up of Galdós’s performs. After writing novels for 20 years, Galdós turned to the theater. In 1891 he recast his novel Realidad into dialogue, staging it efficiently the next yr. He produced 22 performs, of which La loca de la casa (1893) and El abuelo (1904) are thought of his greatest. The premiere of Electra (1901) unleashed a storm of controversy, incomes Galdós the hatred of Spain’s clergy and conservative class. Galdós was an genuine revolutionary of the Spanish theater. Reacting in opposition to José Echegaray’s outmoded romantic melodrama, he confronted audiences with a frank portrayal of social conflicts. His performs anticipated the improvements of contemporary Spanish drama.

In 1897 Galdós was elected to the Spanish Academy, and by 1912 he had change into completely blind. Beset by monetary difficulties, he continued to jot down, though his well being was failing. He died on Jan. 4, 1920, in Madrid.

From the Galdos’ biography, details that are mirrored within the novel Miau are his lovely and vivid description of Madrid, the streets, the plazas, the church buildings, the home and even the locations of leisure such because the parks and theatres or opera homes that his girls characters Senora Pura, Abelarda and Milagros Villaamil are keen on frequenting to indicate their social standing. Likewise, the insolent and abusive Victor Cadalso has a semblance with that of radical and revolting views of Galdos.

What’s hanging within the novel is the inclusion of many historic allusions and day by day authorities bureaucratic system which affected our protagonist within the novel and the domino impact to his household. The historical past of nineteenth century Spain is usually thought of by different writers because the century of insanity because of the gross results of bourgeoisie capitalism, political unrest, rise and fall of 1 authorities to a different and fixed civil warfare inside Spain and her colonies within the Philippines and Cuba.

It’s noteworthy to take a look at the tumultuous historical past of Spain through the nineteenth that can mirror additionally the divisive, despotic and unpeaceful milieu which our protagonist skilled by the hands of the egocentric bureaucrats.

In 1866, a revolt led by Juan Prim was suppressed, however it was turning into more and more clear that the individuals of Spain have been upset with Isabella’s method to governance. In 1868, the Wonderful Revolution broke out when the progresista generals Francisco Serrano and Juan Prim revolted in opposition to her, and defeated her moderado generals on the Battle of Alcolea. Isabella was pushed into exile in Paris.

Revolution and anarchy broke out in Spain within the two years that adopted; it was solely in 1870 that the Cortes declared that Spain would have a king once more. Because it turned out, this resolution performed an essential position in European and world historical past, for a German prince’s candidacy to the Spanish throne and French opposition to him served because the speedy motive for the Franco-Prussian Warfare. Amadeus of Savoy was chosen, and he was duly topped King of Spain early the next yr.

Amadeus – a liberal who swore by the liberal structure the Cortes promulgated – was confronted instantly with the unimaginable job of bringing the disparate political ideologies of Spain to at least one desk. He was affected by internecine strife, not merely between Spaniards however inside Spanish events.

Following the Hidalgo affair, Amadeus famously declared the individuals of Spain to be ungovernable, and fled the nation. In his absence, a authorities of radicals and Republicans was fashioned that declared Spain a republic.

The republic was instantly underneath siege from all quarters – the Carlists have been probably the most speedy risk, launching a violent rebel after their poor exhibiting within the 1872 elections. There have been requires socialist revolution from the Worldwide Workingmen’s Affiliation, revolts and unrest within the autonomous areas of Navarre and Catalonia, and strain from the Roman Catholic Church in opposition to the fledgling republic.

Though the previous queen, Isabella II was nonetheless alive, she acknowledged that she was too divisive as a frontrunner, and abdicated in 1870 in favor of her son, Alfonso, who was duly topped Alfonso XII of Spain. After the tumult of the First Spanish Republic, Spaniards have been keen to simply accept a return to stability underneath Bourbon rule. The Republican armies in Spain – which have been resisting a Carlist rebel – pronounced their allegiance to Alfonso within the winter of 1874-1875, led by Brigadier Basic Martinez Campos. The Republic was dissolved and Antonio Canovas del Castillo, a trusted advisor to the king, was named Prime Minister on New 12 months’s Eve, 1874. The Carlist rebel was put down vigorously by the brand new king, who took an lively position within the warfare and quickly gained the assist of most of his countrymen.

A system of turnos was established in Spain wherein the liberals, led by Práxedes Mateo Sagasta and the conservatives, led by Antonio Canovas del Castillo, alternated in command of the federal government. A modicum of stability and financial progress was restored to Spain throughout Alfonso XII’s rule. His demise in 1885, adopted by the assassination of Canovas del Castillo in 1897, destabilized the federal government.

Cuba rebelled in opposition to Spain within the Ten Years’ Warfare starting in 1868, ensuing within the abolition of slavery in Spain’s colonies within the New World. American pursuits within the island, coupled with issues for the individuals of Cuba, aggravated relations between the 2 international locations. The explosion of the USS Maine launched the Spanish-American Warfare in 1898, wherein Spain fared disastrously. Cuba gained its independence and Spain misplaced its remaining New World colony, Puerto Rico, which along with Guam and the Philippines it ceded to america for 20 million {dollars}. In 1899, Spain offered its remaining Pacific islands-the Northern Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands and Palau-to Germany and Spanish colonial possessions have been diminished to Spanish Morocco, Spanish Sahara and Spanish Guinea, all in Africa.

The “catastrophe” of 1898 created the Era of ’98, a gaggle of statesmen and intellectuals who demanded change from the brand new authorities. Anarchist and fascist actions have been on the rise in Spain within the early twentieth century. A revolt in 1909 in Catalonia was bloodily suppressed.

Spain’s neutrality in World Warfare I allowed it to change into a provider of fabric for each side to its nice benefit, prompting an financial increase in Spain. The outbreak of Spanish influenza in Spain and elsewhere, together with a serious financial slowdown within the post-war interval, hit Spain notably arduous, and the nation went into debt. A significant employee’s strike was suppressed in 1919.

Mistreatment of the Moorish inhabitants in Spanish Morocco led to an rebellion and the lack of this North African possession aside from the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla in 1921. (See Abd el-Krim, Annual). To be able to keep away from accountability, King Alfonso XIII determined to assist the dictatorship of Basic Miguel Primo de Rivera, ending the interval of constitutional monarchy in Spain.

In joint motion with France, the Moroccan territory was recovered (1925-1927), however in 1930 chapter and big unpopularity left the king no possibility however to power Primo de Rivera to resign. Disgusted with the king’s involvement in his dictatorship, the city inhabitants voted for republican events within the municipal elections of April 1931. The king fled the nation with out abdicating and a republic was established.

Although the novel ends with the suicide of Villaamil, his will for Spain for higher administration and different advocacies are written as M.I.A.U. that stands for Morality, Earnings Tax, Extra Duties and Unification of the debt (Cohen, 1963: 145). It summarizes his private want for the full ethical reformation of the federal government official and rank and file staff; instituting cost of non-public revenue tax by staff; further tariffs for the merchandise of overseas merchants and paying the nationwide debt by consolidating all of the provincial wants and paying them solely every year.

To research the sociological idea of paperwork within the novel, the scholar author makes use of the Weberian Mannequin which ideas are summarized thus: The final century noticed the perfection of the paperwork — a type of group that has been enormously profitable and is the results of 1000’s of years of trial and error evolution. Max Weber outlined the important thing traits of a paperwork:

  1. specification of jobs with detailed rights, obligations, duties, scope of authority
  2. system of supervision and subordination
  3. unity of command
  4. intensive use of written paperwork
  5. coaching in job necessities and abilities
  6. utility of constant and full guidelines (firm guide)
  7. assign work and rent personnel based mostly on competence and expertise

In Miau, rules appear apparent and commonplace. Nonetheless, they’re all innovations — the federal government places of work didn’t at all times have these options relatively the other.

The narrator of the novel, third individual omniscient sees bureaucracies as inefficient, gradual and usually unhealthy. When don Ramon Villaamil was following up his doable reinstatement, he was completely upset to listen to false guarantees that he’ll get again the place. For Villaamil was already in his retirement when he turned a “cesante” or “suspendido” The sudden change within the authorities suspended all staff which aren’t their allies, based mostly on favoritism. There would have been no downside had he served for 2 extra months. He can reside together with his pension to maintain the pretentious and spendthrift life-style of his spouse Dona Pura, his daughter Abelarda and his sister-in-law who all like to go to the opera home even when they have been already begging as a result of Villaamil was already penniless. In Weber’s time, they have been seen as marvellously environment friendly machines that reliably completed their objectives. And actually, bureaucracies did change into enormously profitable, simply outcompeting different group kinds corresponding to household companies and adhocracies. In addition they did a lot to introduce ideas of equity and equality of alternative into society, having a profound impact on the social construction of countries.

Nonetheless, bureaucracies are higher for some duties than others. Particularly, bureaucracies usually are not clearly good within the Spanish authorities. Officers abuse their authorities. Worst, unqualified officers and even clerks have been promoted not on the deserves of their work however with the nice individuals they know within the ministry. There are lots of cases within the novel when this immoral promotion was practiced…

Then that thankless wretch, that ungrateful scoundrel, who was a clerk in Workplace after I was Monetary Inspector, fourth class, that shameless rogue Who by sheer audacity has acquired himself promoted over my head and change into At least a governor, that man has the indelicacy handy me two and a half Pesetas (Cohen, 1963: 15)

He was already asking for help from his former clerks when he was suspended. And he concluded in saying that there is nothing left on this planet however selfishness and ingratitude. He added one other clerk who was promoted and acquired improve yearly..

“Take that clodhopper Montes, for instance, who owes his profession to me, As a result of I proposed his promotion within the central Auditory. Are you aware He would not even greet me on the street? He offers himself such airs that not Even the minister…And he is going forward on a regular basis. They’ve simply raised him t to 14 thousand. He will get an increase yearly. Nothing stops him. That is what You acquire by flattering and crawling. He doesn’t perceive the least factor About administration. All he can do is speak about capturing with the director And in regards to the canine…”

Nearly discovering fault due to his distress, Don Villaamil couldn’t do something however to ask favour to their pals to observe up doable vacant put up the place he can work once more. This was one of many weaknesses of Weberian Mannequin of paperwork, he thought that the paperwork in his nation, Germany, and her flourishing trade will be likened to all different organizations. Weber concluded that every one these new large-scale organizations have been comparable. Every was a paperwork. Clearly, Villaamil regarded bureaucracyas a grimy phrase, suggesting crimson tape, inefficiency, and officiousness. Bureaucracies can develop these options, particularly if authority is extremely centralized. The ultimate end result for his doable reinstatement which he patiently waited must come from one excessive workplace all the way down to the provincial workplace. The crimson tape was certainly vicious that tremendously affected Villaamil. That of hatred to bureaucrats, the hypocrite clerks, the unworthy staff and the injustice of the federal government when he mentioned to Victor, his son-in-law:

“Sure, sure. There is no beating you for bare-faced effrontery. Since you’ve acquired no disgrace'(furious with fury and swallowing his Bitterness) ‘you get all the pieces you need. The world is at your ft Promotion in any respect prices, and satan take the hindmost!” (Cohen, 1963: 73)

With all of the bitterness, Villaamil mentioned that he would bear his misfortunes patiently and it by no means occurred to him that the federal government won’t give his put up again once more.

Weber’s goal, nonetheless, was to outline the important options of recent organizations and to point why these organizations labored so significantly better than conventional ones. Allow us to look at the options that Weber present in bureaucracies.

Above all, Weber emphasised that bureaucratic organizations have been an try and subdue human affairs to the rule of reason-to make it doable to conduct the enterprise of the group “in line with calculable guidelines.” For individuals who developed trendy organizations, the aim was to seek out rational options to the brand new issues of dimension Weber noticed paperwork because the rational product of social engineering, simply because the machines of the Industrial Revolution have been the rational merchandise of mechanical engineering. He wrote:

The decisive cause for the advance of bureaucratic group has at all times been its purely technical superiority over any former group. The totally developed bureaucratic mechanism compares with different organizations precisely as does the machine with non-mechanical modes of manufacturing( Coser, 1969)

For Weber the time period paperwork was inseparable from the time period rationality. And we could converse of his idea as a “rational paperwork” However what have been the options developed to make bureaucracies rational? Particularly, they’re: (1) purposeful specialization (2) clear traces of hierarchical authority, (3) knowledgeable coaching of managers, and (4) resolution making based mostly on guidelines and techniques developed to ensure constant and efficient pursuit of organizational objectives.

Weber famous further options of rational bureaucracies which might be easy extensions of the 4 simply outlined, To make sure knowledgeable administration, appointment and promotion are based mostly on advantage relatively than favoritism, and people appointed deal with their positions as full-time, main careers.

Fairly the reverse within the novel, whereas Villaamil is probably the most upright, sincere, good and obedient to the federal government, that he even labored within the Philippines when he was nonetheless new within the civil service on the age of twenty 4 however has to return to the mainland as a result of he was affected by dysentery. In full distinction, his son-in-law, who married his favorite daughter Luisa, was at all times promoted even when had questionable transactions within the authorities. All of the allegations in opposition to him have been dismissed due to his attraction and connection. In keeping with the workplace gossip He’s the favorite of the aunt of a excessive within the authorities, briefly, the lady has a terrific affect within the authorities. It’s referred to as the petticoat affect. With out the influential girl going to the workplace, Victor, as a secret lover of the matron, secured his promotion regardless of his alleged plunder and malversation of presidency funds.

Equally, even different officers the place Villaamil was working, all of the unquestionable officers with their integrity and capability have been simply promoted, whereas the sincere males like him are suspended.

To make sure order in resolution making, paperwork is carried out primarily by way of written guidelines data, and communications. That is vividly described within the novel a number of occasions. Rank and file and officers as properly are at all times on their desks for his or her enterprise transactions, therefore, creating the crimson tape. However, when the officers are out, expectedly, the workplace staff are in no way working. They’re seen speaking, consuming and even jesting one another. One time when Villaamil visited the workplace, he noticed that the workplace staff have been simply speaking throughout workplace hours. The lame Guillen would even draw caricatures that even Villaamil was satirically attacked with a disgusting description of his poverty. However when Pandora, his good friend, the official, arrives the workplace, hypocritically, staff return to work.

Weber’s concept of purposeful specialization applies each to individuals inside a corporation and to relations between bigger items or divisions of the group. Within the authorities of Villaamil, work was damaged down into many particular duties, and staff have been assigned to at least one or a couple of such duties, together with the duties concerned in coordinating the work of others. (Such coordination is named administration or administration.) Weber argued that such specialization is crucial to a rational paperwork and that the particular boundaries separating one purposeful division from one other have to be mounted by specific guidelines, rules, and procedures. Villaamil by no means noticed it when he was already suspended. However issues appeared proper when he was nonetheless within the put up. His sincere and contented perspective in work would solely enable him to work and work with out giving himself in rumour-mongering. As a matter of truth, Villaamil’s proposal with an acronym of MIAU, in line with him, was painstakingly conceptualized and studied for ten years. However not for different characters. They have been his exact opposite.

For Weber it was self-evident that coordinating the divisions of enormous organizations requires clear traces of authority organized in a hierarchy. Which means there are clear “ranges of graded authority.” All staff within the group should know who their boss is, and every individual ought to at all times respect the chain of command; that’s, individuals ought to give orders solely to their very own subordinates and obtain orders solely by way of their very own speedy superior On this approach, the individuals on the prime can ensure that directives arrive the place they’re meant to go and know the place duties lie. This concept within the novel was tainted with favouritism or nepotism. Their focus is directed to the official and never on their work, therefore their patronage for them in any other case, they won’t be promoted and won’t get a increase within the wage. Victor did this a number of occasions by rubbing elbows with the officers by flattering them, or by hooking wealthy and influential girls together with his good-looking seems.

Moreover, hierarchical authority is required in bureaucracies in order that extremely educated consultants can he correctly used as managers. Rational bureaucracies will be operated, Weber argued, solely by deploying managers in any respect ranges which have been chosen and educated for his or her particular jobs. Individuals ticketed for prime positions in bureaucracies are sometimes rotated by way of many divisions of a corporation to realize firsthand expertise of the numerous issues that their future subordinates should face. Mockingly, all this bureaucratic fashions that Weber conceptualized weren’t dutifully practiced by all of the characters besides by Villaamil himself and maybe Pantoja and the younger Cucurbita.

Lastly, Weber pressured that rational bureaucracies have to be managed in accordance with rigorously developed guidelines and rules that may be discovered and utilized and that transactions and selections have to be recorded in order that guidelines can he reviewed. Solely with such guidelines and rules can the actions of a whole bunch of managers at completely different ranges within the group be predicted and coordinated. If we can not predict what others will do, then we can not rely on them.

Weber’s ideas of paperwork are rational and purposeful however in actuality and in observe, are all idealistic. The individuals within the system have been taught to be machine that might do as they have been advised. The novel Miau simply confirmed the exact opposite. As a result of they’re all human within the paperwork, they’re all prone to human weaknesses, frailties and disdain for guidelines.

And with all of the irony of bureaucratic system within the novel, our protagonist was completely affected by “the inhuman machine-like character of this paperwork”(Soileau, 2006). The results will be gleaned on financial, bodily, psychological, ethical and non secular aftermath that affected and destroyed Señor Ramon De Villaamil.

First is financial. When Villaamil was suspended, he turned extra acutely aware of the shortage of meals to eat on the desk, if not the absence of it. It resulted additional to humiliating himself by begging to his former clerks and pals within the authorities. His suspension within the authorities meant the absence of wage, the absence of cash. His solely pleasure, his grandson Luis, was a younger witness to his struggling. In the meantime, his insensitive and hypocrite spouse, Dona Pura, would make a method to discover meals on the desk only for the day. In keeping with Villaamil, she cherished lovely issues that might make them look wealthy, lovely curtains, lovely school room, that Villaamil’s wage on the primary day of the month is already spent on the day it’s acquired. With this financial downfall, his daughter Abelarda and sister-in-law Milagros, collectively together with his spouse, referred to as the three Miaus, for they resemble the face of a cat, or pussy-faced, in line with Luis’ classmates, would nonetheless discover time to observe on the theatre socializing with the true wealthy.

Second is bodily. A lot of Villaamil’s former colleagues seen his age, his emaciated face and the unhappiness he emanated every time he would go to the workplace. The suspension completely misplaced his urge for food, other than the actual fact there was actually nothing to eat, has made his physique skinny. That in line with Dona Pura, he have to be good and chic if he needed to get again his put up. N the top of the novel, his weak physique would at all times detect the rocks of the mountains, on the perimeters of the desk in his home and couldn’t even final to hold his grandson Luis. This horrible impact was felt by his unsuspecting physique.

Third is psychological. Within the dizzying maze of paperwork, his impatience for the reinstatement, his financial and bodily crises, certainly, pushed him to psychological abnormality. Many occasions, he would blame to an unseen evil power, that he suspected, may be behind the rationale why he was not reinstated. A number of events would show that he would dwell on pessimism and negativism: “Do not come to me with optimism and methods. I let you know many times that I’ll by no means get again to work. I’ve no hope, none.”; likewise he mentioned They will not give me my job again till the afternoon of the day of judgment.”; Villaamil sank an increasing number of into his pessimism, reaching the acute of claiming ‘We’ll see the solar come up within the west earlier than you will see me return to work.'”; “I did not have any illusions and that is not the way in which”, mentioned don Ramon, elevating his arms nearly to the ceiling, “I by no means had any hope. I by no means believed that they might give me my job and I’ll by no means imagine it.”; and, God would not assist anybody however the crooks. Do you suppose I count on something from the Ministry or from God? Everybody is identical… above and beneath farces, favoritism.'”. All these he uttered to others however largely to himself (inside monologue). Since he had no extra face to his exterior world, even his inside world within the household, he completely misplaced all management to outlive and reside.

His lack of ethical turpitude on what is sweet and proper interspersed together with his private non secular connection to God was completely misplaced within the final two chapters within the novel. It might have been a wry humor within the story however bites one within the conscience when the outdated, suspended, mad Villaamil was working away from the household and Mendizabal, his neighbour, who have been looking for him. He was having fun with, like a baby, the hide-and-seek that meant to save lots of him from his ultimate demise.

However, it appears that evidently, there’s a Dostoyevskian perception in Villaamil that insanity is a path to divine inspiration (Cohen, 1963:5). In his majestic determine within the cliff, like Jesus when he was tempted by the satan to throw himself to the depth, he discovered power in his new freedom. He was completely indifferent from actuality. He even made a motto for his demise which was: “A foul demise to the entire universe” ( which in Spanish the initials are MIAU-“Muerte. Infamante.Al Universo”). He loved the thought of not pondering for cash anymore; that he would free himself from the pretentious, hypocrite and materialistic Miaus and handed them onto Ponce, the longer term husband of Abelarda who inherited a terrific sum from an uncle who simply died, that he wouldn’t take care of the put up anymore for higher is to be with God. He comforted himself by trying and speaking to the birds. These birds have been surviving with out to fret on what they might eat and so would he.

And with that false perception if not flawed notion of spirituality (as Luis advised him in regards to the apparition that God would get his grandfather) he shot himself… and the shot echoed within the solitude of that darkish and abandoned place. Villaamil gave a horrible leap, his head plunged into the shifting earth, and he rolled straight down into the gulf. He retained the consciousness just for sufficient time to say: “properly… it did…”

In conclusion, our protagonist, who might also be thought of a tragic character, within the maze of paperwork the place it has favored the individuals on the idea of favoritism, nepotism, “petticoat affect”, closeness, patronage of the officers, abuse will be seen, if not felt, by Villaamil, his household and his grandson. Villaamil should have been promoted based mostly on his deserves, {qualifications}, honesty and integrity on his work. This abuse, which led to his suspension, affected him economically, bodily, psychologically, morally and spiritually and brutally put himself to demise.


Cohen, J. M.(tr). (1966). Miau. Baltimore: Penguin Books Ltd.

Coser, Lewis A. and Bernard Rosenberg (eds). Sociological Idea: A E-book of Readings.

London: The Macmillan Firm.

Gerth, H. H. and C. Wright Mills. (1961). From Max Weber: essays in Sociology.

New York: Oxford College Press.

Soileau, Clany. (2006). Cash and Tragedy within the Nineteenth Century Novels.


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