The Arizona Grand Canyon – A Biblical Perspective on Its Formation

The Grand Canyon is a spectacular rift on the Earth’s floor which is a few 270 miles lengthy, as much as 18 miles extensive and a mile deep in elements. It’s a haven for geologists as a result of alongside its size are strata protecting virtually the entire of the Earth’s lengthy geological historical past with tons of of layers of sediments of various thicknesses, color, composition and fossils. It attracts tens of millions of tourists yearly however regardless of the nice curiosity in it, the issue of the way it was fashioned nonetheless stays a thriller (1). Some suppose that it was carved out by the Colorado River over many tens of millions of years whereas others consider it was made by Noah’s Flood just a few thousand years in the past. Neither of those explanations is passable for many who know the Canyon effectively. This text proposes a completely new speculation which relies on the noticed options of the Canyon in addition to on 4 vital components alluded to within the Bible (2) that are:

1. The behaviour of the Earth’s lithosphere

2. The origin of the Earth’s sedimentary strata.

3. Continental drift

4. The latest ice age in North America

If these components are absolutely and logically thought of the story of the formation of the Canyon is kind of dramatic and accounts for all of the options of this very well-known pure marvel. To make the story simpler to observe I’ve divided it into seven phases.

The Earth’s lithosphere or ‘foundations’ – As defined in a earlier article our planet was constructed up one layer at a time and the ultimate layer was comprised of particles of rock minerals which with warmth and stress turned a spherical shell of basaltic rock some 4 miles thick. An vital function of the foundations is that they’re versatile and regardless of their nice weight and thickness they will nonetheless transfer vertically up or down in response to masses utilized from beneath or above.(3) Three completely different masses on the foundations have contributed to the formation of the Grand Canyon.

These are:

1. A really extreme dynamic load from a large extraterrestrial physique.

2. A downward load from many layers of deposited sediments.

3. An upward load from the stress within the asthenosphere.

All of those masses are defined in what follows.

The origin of the Earth’s sediments – The Grand Canyon exposes an important thickness of sedimentary strata so we first want to grasp the place all these sediments got here from. Geologists suppose that every one this huge quantity of sediments got here from weathering of the lithosphere by varied processes over billions of years. Weathering is acknowledged within the Bible (Job14:18) and we see this happening immediately however the Bible additionally suggests a really completely different origin for the sediments. It tells us that the “layers” had been constructed “within the sky” and “based as strata” on “the earth” (Amos 9:6). This may be fairly interpreted to imply {that a} good proportion of the sediments weren’t fashioned by weathering however had been fashioned in house and settled down on the Earth in layers. However the Bible additionally suggests a spectacular manner that the majority of sediments got here to Earth. They had been first loosely gathered collectively from a unique a part of the identical disc to type one other smaller physique in house however this time encapsulated inside a lighter extra granitic shell.(4) I’ve referred to as this physique Esther in a earlier article and the way wherein it turned a part of the Earth is related to the formation of the Grand Canyon. Esther got here inside the Earth’s gravitational grasp and was compelled into an inward spiralling orbit around the Earth. She moved quicker with every orbit and in her ultimate circuit she bounced like a huge ball on the very deep ocean mattress within the space now occupied by the Pacific Ocean (Ps.24:2). This preliminary impression depressed and heated the ocean flooring within the Pacific and ruptured the foundations to provide an enormous horse shoe formed pressure crack some 25,000 miles in size the place 75% of all of the volcanoes on the Earth are discovered. Having dented and cracked the foundations, Esther continued on its ultimate orbit to the opposite aspect of the globe the place she exploded and scattered her contents to type an enormous close to round heap of sediments which turned the supercontinent Pangaea (4). The dent and rupture of the foundations brought on by Esther’s first impression is acknowledged immediately because the Pacific ‘ring of fireplace’ (3). One part of this ring of fireplace lies moderately near the place the Grand Canyon is immediately and that is of nice relevance to the formation of the Canyon as is defined shortly.

The Colorado sedimentary basin – A sedimentary basin is a really in depth space on the Earth the place layer upon layer of sediments have been deposited over an unlimited time period. They are often hundreds of sq. miles in space and hundreds of ft deep. The layers type from sediments however ultimately grow to be sedimentary rocks and sometimes embrace fossils of plant or animal life that lived on the time. Arizona was as soon as a part of Pangaea when N America was hooked up to NW Africa and Western Europe. This space was then barely above sea stage which meant it was repeatedly topic to inundation by the ocean and rivers which introduced in sediments. A really giant sedimentary basin was fashioned on this a part of Pangaea and we are able to name it the Colorado Sedimentary Basin. So it needs to be remembered that the sediments we see on the edges of the Grand Canyon immediately had been in actual fact deposited and hidden away whereas N America was nonetheless a part of Pangaea.

The latest Ice age and the Firmament – There’s a lot Geological proof that implies that a lot of the land floor of the Earth was as soon as lined over with very thick layers of ice. What stays debatable nonetheless is precisely how very thick layers of ice got here to be fashioned and to this point no credible idea has been put ahead. The Bible does nonetheless give us a clue about this which is defined as follows. We dwell in a era of life that began solely six to 10 thousand years in the past however there was a earlier era of life which was introduced to finish by a world flood referred to as Lucifer’s Flood which was adopted by a interval when the Solar’s warmth and lightweight failed to succeed in the flooded Earth (Gen.1:2). This lasted lengthy sufficient for the worldwide ocean to freeze to a depth of maybe 100 ft or extra. When heating from the Solar was resumed a number of thousand years later a partial thaw of the floor melted among the ice however not all. What remained beneath the melted water is referred to within the Bible as “the firmament within the midst of the waters” (Gen.1:6). This thick slab of ice adopted the Earth’s curvature and was due to this fact dome formed to start with. A really robust gravitational pull from one other physique whisked away all of the melted water and raised the dome of ice effectively above sea stage in order to supply the nonetheless submerged supercontinent with a form of world umbrella. This dome or Firmament (4 &5) because it has come to be recognized remained in place for simply over two thousand years and whereas it existed all of the land beneath it turned a subtropical greenhouse which allowed plant animal and human life to thrive abundantly. Life spans for folks dwelling beneath the dome had been about ten occasions longer than they’re immediately. The dome was hemispherical with a 25000 mile circumference at its base and was stored in place for a number of centuries by sub-zero temperatures above it and a excessive atmospheric stress beneath it. Geologists who’ve studied the final ice age suppose that a lot of North America as soon as had ice sheets fifty ft or extra thick (3) and their findings are as what we’d count on because the stays of the collapsed firmament.

The separation of North America from Pangaea – The Bible tells us that the supercontinent Pangaea subsequently divided (Gen.10:25) however says this occurred in a short time and just some 4000 years in the past.Therefore as I consider that the Bible is true on this matter I’ve to conclude that North America moved away from Pangaea moderately shortly by slipping on its foundations and was not carried very slowly by its foundations performing as a conveyor belt. The western shoreline of N America was severely affected by big waves and thus the Colorado sedimentary basin which was then at sea stage misplaced a few of its higher layers by erosion.

Breakup of the Firmament – When N America broke away from Pangaea she approached the stable ice wall of the Firmament at some velocity. There was a collision and the continent continued on for about two thousand miles by which period it had acquired an enormous momentum. It might need continued slipping even additional however was stopped very abruptly from doing so by the raised and roughened ocean flooring and volcanoes on the ‘ring of fireplace’ that was fashioned a lot earlier by Esther. All that is related as a result of the formation of the Grand Canyon was triggered off by this double collision- first with the thick ice partitions of the Firmament after which with the volcanoes and raised ocean flooring on the Pacific ‘ring of fireplace’. Within the first collision with the Firmament all of North America turned immediately lined with very thick slabs of ice. The sky actually fell upon the then very sparsely populated land. The big lakes equivalent to -Nice Bear, Nice Slave, Winnipeg, Superior, Michigan, Ontario and Eyre which all lie on a effectively outlined arc are of glacial/volcanic origin and the Firmament and fast motion of N America thus offers an evidence for this very sudden and up to date glaciation and volcanism of this continent.

Formation of the Colorado Plateau and Grand Canyon – When N America collided with the ‘ring of fireplace’ a substantial amount of warmth was generated. The foundations right here had been already broken however with the arrival of the continent with an especially sizzling base they turned even weaker. The partly eroded Colorado sedimentary basin now discovered itself not solely relieved of a few of its weight but in addition on highly regarded and weakened foundations. The stress from beneath these new foundations was now excessive sufficient to elevate its new load by almost 6000 ft above its earlier stage. Thus what was a sedimentary basin at sea stage in far distant Pangaea turned a raised plateau in Arizona and it’s this plateau which we all know immediately because the Colorado Plateau. Its flat prime could also be attributed to the erosion it suffered as a sedimentary basin whereas N America was on the transfer. The uplift additionally raised the extraordinarily huge amount of ice that had fallen on the area when the Firmament was impacted. This lifting up of the sedimentary basin induced immense stresses within the tons of of layers it contained. The stronger deeper layers of the plateau had been capable of stand up to these stresses however the higher layers weren’t and a sample of slim however pretty deep pressure cracks developed instantly beneath the ice alongside a 270 mile lengthy stretch of the Plateau. Floor warmth brought on by friction started to soften the ice quickly and the ensuing water started to pour into the cracks forming tons of of Niagara kind waterfalls. Water, particularly with blocks of ice, has super erosive energy and shortly the slim pressure cracks that had been fashioned earlier turned widened and deepened by erosion from the highest. This went on for a number of years till all of the water had drained away downwards via the cracks. The ultimate consequence of all this fast and highly effective erosion was the formation of the Grand Canyon as we see it immediately. As soon as the realm turned secure new rivers had been capable of type and take their course. One in all these was the Colorado River which discovered its manner into the deepest elements of the plateau and immediately this river does an exquisite upkeep job in clearing away the particles but it surely had no half in forming the Canyon.

Concluding remarks – On this article I’ve given an evidence for the formation of the Grand Canyon which is basically based mostly on refined clues given within the Bible. On this foundation the Grand Canyon is a monument to Esther who ready the bottom and equipped proportion sediments seen within the Canyon but in addition to the Firmament which puzzled translators of the Bible killed a very long time in the past.

References

1. Ranney W. Carving Grand Canyon: Proof, Theories and Thriller Grand Canyon Affiliation ISBN 978-1-934656-36-5

2. All biblical references are from the New King James Bible Thomas Nelson Inc 1982

3. Duff D ‘Holmes Ideas of Bodily Geology’ Chapman & Corridor Fourth Ed London 1993

4. Pimenta L.R. ‘The Firmament of the sky dome’ Matador Kibworth Beauchamp 2012 ISBN 978-1-78088-201-7

5. Seely Paul H ‘The Firmament and the water above’ Westminister Theological Journal 53 (1991) 227-240

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