hold – Wiktionary

hold - Wiktionary



Etymology 1[edit]

From Center English holden, from Outdated English healdan, from Proto-Germanic *haldaną (to have a tendency, herd), possibly from Proto-Indo-European *kel- (to drive) (evaluate Latin celer (fast), Tocharian B kälts (to goad, drive), Historic Greek κέλλω (kéllō, to drive), Sanskrit कलयति (kaláyati, he impels)).[1][2] Cognate to West Frisian hâlde, Low German holden, holen, Dutch houden, German halten, Danish and Norwegian Bokmål holde, Norwegian Nynorsk halda.


maintain (third-person singular easy current holds, current participle holding, easy previous held, previous participle held or (archaic) holden)

  1. (transitive) To know or grip.

    Maintain the pencil like this.

    • 1879, R[ichard] J[efferies], chapter 1, in The Beginner Poacher, London: Smith, Elder, & Co., [], OCLC 752825175:

      However then I had the flintlock by me for defense. ¶ There have been giants within the days when that gun was made; for absolutely no fashionable mortal may have held that mass of steel regular to his shoulder. The linen-press and a chest on the highest of it shaped, nonetheless, an excellent gun-carriage; and, thus mounted, intention might be taken out of the window [].

    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 23, in The Mirror and the Lamp:

      The slightest effort made the affected person cough. He would stand leaning on a stick and holding a hand to his facet, and when the paroxysm had handed it left him shaking.

    • 2013 September-October, Henry Petroski, “The Evolution of Eyeglasses”, in American Scientist:

      The power of a phase of a glass sphere to amplify no matter is positioned earlier than it was identified across the 12 months 1000, when the spherical phase was known as a studying stone, []. Scribes, illuminators, and students held such stones straight over manuscript pages as an support in seeing what was being written, drawn, or learn.

  2. (transitive) To comprise or retailer.

    This package deal holds six bottles.

  3. (heading) To keep up or preserve to a place or state.
    1. (transitive) To have and preserve possession of one thing.

      Maintain my coat for me.  The overall ordered the colonel to maintain his place in any respect prices.

      • 2011 December 14, Angelique Chrisafis, “Rachida Dati accuses French PM of sexism and elitism”, in Guardian[1]:

        She was Nicolas Sarkozy’s pin-up for range, the primary Muslim lady with north African mother and father to maintain a significant French authorities publish. However Rachida Dati has now turned on her personal social gathering elite with such ferocity that some have prompt she ought to be expelled from the president’s ruling social gathering.

    2. (transitive) To order.

      Maintain a desk for us at 7:00.

    3. (transitive) To trigger to attend or delay.

      Maintain the elevator.

    4. (transitive) To detain.

      Maintain the suspect on this cell.

    5. (intransitive, copulative) To be or stay legitimate; to use (normally within the third particular person).

      to maintain true;  The proposition holds.

      • 1691, [John Locke], Some Concerns of the Penalties of the Decreasing of Curiosity, and Elevating the Worth of Cash. [], London: [] Awnsham and John Churchill, [], revealed 1692, OCLC 933799310:

        The rule holds in land in addition to all different commodities.
    6. (intransitive, copulative) To maintain oneself in a selected state.

      to maintain agency

      • 1922, Ben Travers, chapter 2, in A Cuckoo within the Nest[2]:

        Mom [] thought-about that the exclusiveness of Peter’s circle was due to not its distinction, however to the truth that it was an interior Babylon of prodigality and whoredom, from which each and every Kensingtonian held aloof, besides on the traditional tip-and-run excursions in pursuit of purchasing, tea and theatres.

    7. (transitive) To impose restraint upon; to restrict in movement or motion; to bind legally or morally; to restrict; to restrain.
      • 1623, William Shakespeare, The Life and Demise of King John (Act iv, scene 2):

        We can not maintain mortality’s robust hand.

      • 1646, Richard Crashaw, Vpon the Demise of Mr. Herrys
        Demise! what do’st? O, maintain thy blow.
      • 1856 February, [Thomas Babington] Macaulay, “Oliver Goldsmith [from the Encyclopædia Britannica]”, in T[homas] F[lower] E[llis], editor, The Miscellaneous Writings and Speeches of Lord Macaulay, new version, London: Longman, Inexperienced, Reader, & Dyer, revealed 1871, OCLC 30956848:

        He hath not adequate judgment and self-command to maintain his tongue.

    8. (transitive) To bear, carry, or handle.

      He holds himself proudly erect.  Maintain your head excessive.

      • 1595, William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Evening’s Dream:

        Let him maintain his fingers thus, and thru that cranny shall Pyramus and Thisby whisper .

    9. (intransitive, mainly crucial) To not transfer; to halt; to cease.
      • 1606, William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Macbeth:

        Lay on, Macduff, and damned him that first cries maintain, sufficient!

    10. (intransitive) To not give manner; to not half or change into separated; to stay unbroken or unsubdued.
      • 1623, William Shakespeare, Antony and Cleopatra:

        Our pressure by land hath nobly held.

    11. To stay continent; to regulate an excretory bodily perform.

      to maintain one’s bladder;  to maintain one’s breath

  4. (heading) To keep up or preserve to specific opinions, guarantees, actions.
    1. (transitive) To keep up, to contemplate, to opine.
      • 1776, Thomas Jefferson et al., United States Declaration of Independence:
        We maintain these truths to be self-evident, that each one males are created equal, that they’re endowed by their Creator with sure unalienable Rights, that amongst these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
      • 1898, Winston Churchill, chapter 1, in The Superstar:

        Within the previous days, to my commonplace and unobserving thoughts, he gave no evidences of genius in anyway. He by no means learn me any of his manuscripts, […], and subsequently my lack of detection of his promise might in a point be pardoned. However he had then not one of the oddities and mannerisms which I maintain to be inseparable from genius, and which struck my consideration in after days once I got here in touch with the Superstar.

    2. (transitive) To bind (somebody) to a consequence of his or her actions.

      He was held answerable for the actions of these below his command.  I am going to maintain him to that promise.

    3. To keep up in being or motion; to hold on; to prosecute, as a course of conduct or an argument; to proceed; to maintain.
      • Maintain not thy peace, and be not nonetheless.
      • 1667, John Milton, Paradise Misplaced, E book II:

        Seedtime and harvest, warmth and hoary frost, / Shall maintain their course.

    4. To just accept, as an opinion; to be the adherent of, brazenly or privately; to persist in, as a goal; to take care of; to maintain.
    5. (archaic) To restrain oneself; to chorus; to carry again.
      • 1685, John Dryden, Threnodia Augustalis: A Funeral Pindaric Poem:

        His dauntless coronary heart would fain have held / From weeping, however his eyes rebelled.

  5. (tennis, transitive, intransitive) To win one’s personal service sport.
  6. To happen, to happen.
    • 1824, James Hogg, The Personal Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner, Oxford 2010, p. 9:
      He got here into the corridor the place the wedding-festival had held […].
  7. To organise an occasion or assembly (normally in passive voice).

    Elections might be held on the primary Sunday of subsequent month.

    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 5, in The Mirror and the Lamp:

      Right here, within the transept and choir, the place the service was being held, one was acutely aware each second of an rising brightness; colors glowing vividly beneath the round chandeliers, and the rows of small lights on the choristers’ desks flashed and sparkled in entrance of the boys’ faces, deep linen collars, and purple neckbands.

  8. (archaic) To derive proper or title.
  9. (crucial) In a meals or drink order at a casual restaurant and so forth., requesting {that a} element usually included in that order be omitted.

    One ham-and-cheese sandwich; maintain the mustard.

    A martini, please, and maintain the olive.

  10. (slang, intransitive) To be in possession of illicit medicine on the market.
    • 1933, Goat Laven, Tough Stuff: The Life Story of a Gangster (web page 122)
      [] very first thing shoppers would say to me can be ‘Are you holding?’ I would say sure if we had our provide and no if it was harmful.
Derived phrases[edit]
The translations beneath should be checked and inserted above into the suitable translation tables, eradicating any numbers. Numbers don’t essentially match these in definitions. See directions at Wiktionary:Entry structure § Translations.


maintain (plural holds)

  1. A grasp or grip.
    • 1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 7, in Mr. Pratt’s Sufferers:

      Outdated Applegate, within the stern, simply set and checked out me, and Lord James, amidship, waved each arms and saved hollering for assist. I took a few eternal large strokes and managed to seize maintain of the skiff’s rail, near the strict.

    Preserve a agency maintain on the handlebars.
  2. An act or occasion of holding.
    Can I’ve a maintain of the child?
  3. A spot the place animals are held for security
  4. An order that one thing is to be reserved or delayed, limiting or stopping how it may be handled.
    Senator X positioned a maintain on the invoice, then went to the library and positioned a maintain on a e-book.
  5. One thing reserved or saved.
    We’ve got a maintain right here for you.
  6. Energy over somebody or one thing.
    • 2008, Christopher Clarke-Milton, Daybreak of the Messiah – E book 1, →ISBN, web page 199:

      The Choose accepts the cost, the regulation now not has a maintain on you, and subsequently you’re free to stroll out of the court docket a free man or lady.

    • 2013, Wim Wenders & Mary Zournazi, Inventing Peace: A Dialogue on Notion, →ISBN, web page 107:

      Struggle has a maintain on our cultural imaginations as an inevitable pressure, it’s peace that has no benefactor.

  7. The power to persist.
    • 1982, Laurence Monroe Klauber & Karen Harvey McClung, Rattlesnakes, Their Habits, Life Histories, and Affect, →ISBN, web page 48:

      Regardless of their seemingly robust maintain on life, as indicated by the persistence of motion in decapitation checks, rattlers are comparatively frail creatures and are simply killed.

  8. The property of sustaining the form of styled hair.
    • 2004, Zoe Diana Draelos, Hair Care: An Illustrated Dermatologic Handbook, web page 221:

      Sculpturing gels present stiffer maintain than styling gels, which offer higher maintain than mousses.

  9. (wrestling) A place or grip used to regulate the opponent.
    He acquired him in a good maintain and pinned him to the mat.
  10. (train) An train involving holding a place for a set time
  11. (playing) The share the home wins on of venture, the home or bookmaker’s maintain.
    • 2002, Actuality, “The Scorecard For Bookmakers”, in (Please present the e-book title or journal identify)[3], retrieved 2013-12-18:

    The Home Maintain on the sport is 10,000, that is the quantity of resolution or danger the home needs to imagine.
  12. (playing) The wager quantity, the overall maintain.
    • 2012, Sarah Fortnum, “Melbourne Cup 2012 From The Bookie’s Perspective”, in (Please present the e-book title or journal identify)[4], retrieved 2013-12-18:

    As of Monday night time the overall Melbourne Cup maintain was $848,015
  13. (tennis) An occasion of holding one’s service sport, versus being damaged.
  14. The a part of an object one is meant to understand, or something one can use for greedy with arms or toes.
    • 1898, J. Meade Falkner, Moonfleet Chapter 4
      So I felt my manner down the passage again to the vault, and recked not of the darkness, nor of Blackbeard and his crew, if solely I may lay my lips to liquor. Thus I groped concerning the barrels until close to the highest of the stack my hand struck on the spile of a keg, and drawing it, I acquired my mouth to the maintain.
    • 1995, Turlough Johnston & Madeleine Halldén, Rock Climbing Fundamentals, →ISBN, web page 86:

      The newbie will instinctively attempt to stick his toe straight in in a foot maintain, which could be very tiring on the calf muscle tissues.

  15. A fruit machine characteristic permitting a number of of the reels to stay mounted whereas the others spin.
  16. (video video games, dated) A pause facility.
    • 1983, New Era Software program, Knot in 3D (online game instruction leaflet)
      A maintain facility is on the market; H holds, and S restarts.
    • 1987?, Think about Software program, Legend of Kage (online game instruction leaflet)
      SCREEN 5 — Maybe the hardest — going just like the clappers typically works however usually you will need to be smarter than that. If issues get just a little too hectic and you do not even have time to succeed in the HOLD key, attempt taking a brief relaxation beneath the highest of the steps.
  17. The queueing system on telephones and related communication techniques which maintains a connection when all strains are busy.
    • 2003, Daniel Jackson, Paul Fulberg, Sonic Branding: An Important Information to the Artwork and Science of Sonic Branding, Palgrave Macmillan →ISBN, web page 6
      Given that there’s a mean on-hold time of greater than 5 minutes whereas enquiries are being handled, the phone maintain system supplied the most effective alternative.
    • 2005, Lorraine Grubbs-West, Classes in Loyalty: How Southwest Airways Does it : an Insider’s View, CornerStone Management Inst →ISBN, web page 56
      Even the “on-hold” messages on Southwest’s phone system are humorous, making certain anybody inconvenienced by the maintain is entertained.
    • 2012, Tanner Ezell, Cisco Unified Communications Supervisor 8: Knowledgeable Administration Cookbook, Packt Publishing Ltd →ISBN
      Be aware. After the system downloads its new configuration file, we will take a look at putting a name on maintain and the generic maintain music might be heard.
  18. (baseball) A statistic awarded to a reduction pitcher who shouldn’t be nonetheless pitching on the finish of the sport and who data a minimum of one out and maintains a lead for his group.
  19. (aviation) A area of airspace reserved for plane being saved in a holding sample.

(train): isometric train

Derived phrases[edit]
The translations beneath should be checked and inserted above into the suitable translation tables, eradicating any numbers. Numbers don’t essentially match these in definitions. See directions at Wiktionary:Entry structure § Translations.

See additionally[edit]

Loading bales of wool into the maintain of the barque “Magdalene Vinnen”, Sydney 1933


  1. ^ Robert Ok. Barnhart, ed., Chambers Dictionary of Etymology, s.v. “hold¹” (1988; reprint, Chambers, 2008), 486.
  2. ^ D.Q. Adams, “Drive”, in Encyclopedia of Indo-European Tradition (London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997), 170.

Etymology 2[edit]

Alteration (as a result of maintain) of gap. Cognate with Dutch hol (gap, cave, den, cavity, cargo maintain).


maintain (plural holds)

  1. (nautical, aviation) The cargo space of a ship or plane (typically holds or cargo maintain).
    Put that within the maintain.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Center English maintain, holde, from Outdated English maintain (gracious, pleasant, type, favorable, true, trustworthy, loyal, religious, acceptable, nice), from Proto-Germanic *hulþaz (beneficial, gracious, loyal), from Proto-Indo-European *kel- (to have a tendency, incline, bend, tip). Cognate with German maintain (gracious, pleasant, sympathetic, grateful), Danish and Swedish huld (truthful, kindly, gracious), Icelandic hollur (trustworthy, devoted, loyal), German Huld (grace, favour).


maintain (comparative extra maintain, superlative most maintain)

  1. (out of date) Gracious; pleasant; trustworthy; true.



Etymology 1[edit]

From Outdated Norse hald (grip, energy, maintain). Additionally see holde (to carry).


maintain n (singular particular holdet, plural indefinite maintain)

  1. group (group of individuals working or enjoying collectively)
  2. class (group of scholars taught collectively)
  3. distance, facet (solely with the prepositions or fra and an adjective)
  4. reality
  5. ache (within the muscle tissues)
  6. (uncommon) maintain

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the principle entry.



  1. crucial of holde


From Center Excessive German holt, from Outdated Excessive German maintain, from Proto-Germanic *hulþaz. Cognates embrace Gothic (hulþs, clement) and Outdated Norse hollr ( > Danish huld).



maintain (comparative holder, superlative am holdesten)

  1. (archaic, poetic) pleasant, comely, swish
    • 1907, Carl Spitteler, Die Mädchenfeinde, Siebentes Kapitel, Beim Narrenſtudenten
      • Um aber auf deinen holden Kadettengeneral zurückzukommen, ſo will ich dir, weil du mir dein Geheimnis anvertraut haſt, auch etwas Geheimnisvolles verraten […]


Additional studying[edit]

  • “maintain” in Duden on-line



From Proto-Uralic *kuŋe. Cognates embrace Hungarian (month), Finnish and Estonian kuu.


  • IPA(key): [ ˈhold]
  • Hyphenation: maintain
  • Rhymes: -old


maintain (plural holdak)

  1. moon, pure satellite tv for pc
  2. unit of floor space, initially meant the identical as acre, has completely different varieties starting from 3500 m² to 8400 m²
  3. (attributive utilization) lunar

    maintainfogyatkozáslunar eclipse

Utilization notes[edit]

Some astronomical and geographical phrases have each a lowercase (widespread noun) and a capitalized (correct noun) kind. For föld (floor, soil; Earth)―​Föld (Earth), maintain (moon, satellite tv for pc; Moon)―​Maintain (our Moon), and nap (day; solar; Solar)―​Nap (our Solar), the lowercase varieties are used within the on a regular basis sense and the capitalized varieties within the astronomical sense. In different related pairs, the previous refers to generic sense, and the latter specifies the most effective identified referent: egyenlítő (equator)―​Egyenlítő (Equator), naprendszer (photo voltaic system)―​Naprendszer (Photo voltaic System), and tejút (galaxy, actually “milky manner”, however galaxis and galaktika are extra widespread)―​Tejút (Milky Approach).[5][6][7]


Derived phrases[edit]



From Outdated Norse maintain, from Proto-Germanic *huldą, from Proto-Indo-European *kol-, *kwol-. Cognate with Swedish hull.



maintain n (genitive singular holds, no plural)

  1. flesh
    • Isaiah 40 (Icelandic, English)
      Heyr, einhver segir: “Kalla þú!” Og ég svara: “Hvað skal ég kalla?” “Allt maintain er gras og allur yndisleikur þess sem blóm vallarins. Grasið visnar, blómin fölna, þegar Drottinn andar á þau. Sannlega, mennirnir eru gras. Grasið visnar, blómin fölna, en orð Guðs vors stendur stöðugt eilíflega.”

      A voice says, “Cry out.” And I stated, “What shall I cry?” “All flesh are like grass, and all their glory is just like the flowers of the sector. The grass withers and the flowers fall, as a result of the breath of the LORD blows on them. Absolutely the individuals are grass. The grass withers and the flowers fall, however the phrase of our God stands without end.”


Center English[edit]


From Outdated English maintain.



  1. pleasant, trustworthy



  1. carcase, flesh

Associated phrases[edit]

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]



  1. crucial of holde

Derived phrases[edit]

Outdated English[edit]


Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *huldą, from Proto-Indo-European *kol-, *kwol-. Cognates embrace Outdated Norse maintain (flesh) (Icelandic maintain, Swedish hull), and (from Indo-European) Outdated Irish colainn, Welsh celain.


maintain n (nominative plural maintain)

  1. useless physique; carcass
    Swā swā grǣdiġe ræmmas ðār ðār hī maintain ġesēoþ.

    Like grasping ravens after they see a corpse.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *hulþaz, a variant on a root which means ‘lean, incline’ (evaluate Outdated English heald, hieldan).

Cognates embrace Outdated Frisian maintain, Outdated Saxon maintain, Outdated Excessive German maintain (German maintain), Outdated Norse hollr (Danish huld, Swedish huld), Gothic (hulþs).


maintain (comparative holdra, superlative holdost) (+ dative)

  1. gracious, loyal, type
    Swā maintain is God mancynne ðæt he hæfþ ġeset his englas us to hyrdum.

    God is so gracious to mankind that he has appointed angels as our guardians.

Outdated Excessive German[edit]


From Proto-Germanic *hulþaz



  1. pleasant , loyal

Derived phrases[edit]




maintain m (plural holds)

  1. (baseball) maintain

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