Dandruff – Wikipedia

Dandruff - Wikipedia

A pores and skin situation primarily affecting the scalp inflicting flaking and itchiness

Dandruff is a pores and skin situation that primarily impacts the scalp.[1] Signs embody flaking and generally delicate itchiness.[1][2] It may end up in social or vanity issues.[4] A extra extreme type of the situation, which incorporates irritation of the pores and skin, is named seborrhoeic dermatitis.[1]

The trigger is unclear, however believed to contain quite a few genetic and environmental elements;[1] the situation might worsen within the winter.[5] It’s not resulting from poor hygiene,[6] and the underlying mechanism includes the extreme progress of pores and skin cells.[5] Prognosis is predicated on signs.[3]

There isn’t a identified remedy for dandruff.[7]Antifungal cream, equivalent to ketoconazole, or salicylic acid could also be used to attempt to enhance the situation.[1][2] Dandruff impacts about half of adults, with males extra usually affected than females.[1] Individuals in all areas of the world are affected.[1] Onset is normally at puberty and it turns into much less frequent after the age of 50.[1]

Indicators and signs[edit]

Severe dryness of scalp resulting in Dandruff.

Typical case of dandruff.

The indicators and signs of dandruff are an itchy scalp and flakiness.[8] Crimson and greasy patches of pores and skin and a tingly feeling on the pores and skin are additionally signs.[9]

The trigger is unclear however believed to contain quite a few genetic and environmental elements.[10] The situation might worsen within the winter.[5] It’s not resulting from poor hygiene.[6]

Because the pores and skin layers frequently change themselves, cells are pushed outward the place they die and flake off. For most people, these flakes of pores and skin are too small to be seen. Nevertheless, sure situations trigger cell turnover to be unusually fast, particularly within the scalp. It’s hypothesized that for folks with dandruff, pores and skin cells might mature and be shed in 2–7 days, versus round a month in folks with out dandruff. The result’s that useless pores and skin cells are shed in massive, oily clumps, which seem as white or grayish flakes on the scalp, pores and skin and garments.

In keeping with one examine, dandruff has been proven to be presumably the results of three elements:[11]

  1. Pores and skin oil generally known as sebum or sebaceous secretions[12]
  2. The metabolic by-products of pores and skin micro-organisms (most particularly Malassezia yeasts)[13][14][15][16][17]
  3. Particular person susceptibility and allergy sensitivity.


Older literature cites the fungus Malassezia furfur (beforehand often called Pityrosporum ovale) as the reason for dandruff. Whereas this species does happen naturally on the pores and skin floor of individuals each with and with out dandruff, in 2007 it was found that the accountable agent is a scalp particular fungus, Malassezia globosa,[18] that metabolizes triglycerides current in sebum by the expression of lipase, leading to a lipid byproduct oleic acid. Throughout dandruff, the degrees of Malassezia enhance by 1.5 to 2 instances its regular stage.[5] Oleic acid penetrates the highest layer of the dermis, the stratum corneum, and evokes an inflammatory response in prone folks which disturbs homeostasis and leads to erratic cleavage of stratum corneum cells.[15]

Seborrhoeic dermatitis[edit]

In seborrhoeic dermatitis, redness and itching incessantly happen across the folds of the nostril and eyebrow areas, not simply the scalp. Dry, thick, well-defined lesions consisting of enormous, silvery scales could also be traced to the much less frequent situation of scalp psoriasis. Irritation could be characterised by redness, warmth, ache, swelling and may trigger sensitivity.

Irritation and extension of scaling outdoors the scalp exclude the analysis of dandruff from seborrhoeic dermatitis.[12] Nevertheless, many reviews counsel a transparent hyperlink between the 2 medical entities – the mildest type of the medical presentation of seborrhoeic dermatitis as dandruff, the place the irritation is minimal and stay subclinical.[19][20]

Seasonal modifications, stress, and immunosuppression appear to have an effect on seborrheic dermatitis.[5]


Dandruff scale is a cluster of corneocytes, which have retained a big diploma of cohesion with each other and detach as such from the floor of the stratum corneum. A corneocyte is a protein advanced that’s fabricated from tiny threads of keratin in an organised matrix.[21] The scale and abundance of scales are heterogeneous from one website to a different and over time. Parakeratotic cells usually make up a part of dandruff. Their numbers are associated to the severity of the medical manifestations, which can even be influenced by seborrhea.[5]


Shampoos use a mixture of particular substances to manage dandruff.[citation needed]


Antifungal remedies together with ketoconazole, zinc pyrithione and selenium disulfide have been discovered to be efficient.[8] Ketoconazole seems to have an extended length of impact.[8] Ketoconazole is a broad spectrum antimycotic agent that’s lively towards Candida and M. furfur. Of all of the antifungals of the imidazole class, ketoconazole has turn into the main contender amongst remedy choices due to its effectiveness in treating seborrheic dermatitis as properly.[5]

Ciclopirox is extensively used as an anti-dandruff agent in most preparations.[22]

Coal tar[edit]

Coal tar causes the pores and skin to shed useless cells from the highest layer and slows pores and skin cell progress.[23]


Dandruff impacts round half of all adults.[8]


In keeping with the Oxford English Dictionary, the phrase dandruff is first attested in 1545, however continues to be of unknown etymology.[24]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j ok l m n o Tucker, D; Masood, S (January 2019). “Seborrheic Dermatitis”. PMID 31869171.
  2. ^ a b c d e “Dandruff”. nhs.uk. 18 October 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  3. ^ a b “Affected person schooling: Seborrheic dermatitis (together with dandruff and cradle cap) (Past the Fundamentals)”. www.uptodate.com. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  4. ^ Grimalt, R. (December 2007). “A Sensible Information to Scalp Problems”. Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings. 12 (2): 10–14. doi:10.1038/sj.jidsymp.5650048. PMID 18004290.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Ranganathan, S; Mukhopadhyay, T (2010). “Dandruff: probably the most commercially exploited pores and skin illness”. Indian Journal of Dermatology. 55 (2): 130–4. doi:10.4103/0019-5154.62734. PMC 2887514. PMID 20606879.
  6. ^ a b “Dandruff: The best way to deal with”. American Academy of Dermatology. Archived from the unique on 21 October 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  7. ^ Turkington, Carol; Dover, Jeffrey S. (2007). The Encyclopedia of Pores and skin and Pores and skin Problems (Third ed.). Details On File, Inc. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-8160-6403-8. Archived from the unique on 19 Might 2016.
  8. ^ a b c d Turner, GA; Hoptroff, M; Harding, CR (August 2012). “Stratum corneum dysfunction in dandruff”. Worldwide Journal of Beauty Science. 34 (4): 298–306. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2494.2012.00723.x. PMC 3494381. PMID 22515370.
  9. ^ “What Is Dandruff? Study All About Dandruff”. Medical Information At this time. Archived from the unique on 10 August 2015.
  10. ^ Borda, Luis J.; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C. (December 2015). “Seborrheic Dermatitis and Dandruff: A Complete Evaluate”. Journal of Scientific and Investigative Dermatology. 3 (2). ISSN 2373-1044. PMC 4852869. PMID 27148560.
  11. ^ DeAngelis YM, Gemmer CM, Kaczvinsky JR, Kenneally DC, Schwartz JR, Dawson TL (2005). “Three etiologic sides of dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis: Malassezia fungi, sebaceous lipids, and particular person sensitivity”. J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 10 (3): 295–7. doi:10.1111/j.1087-0024.2005.10119.x. PMID 16382685.
  12. ^ a b Ro BI, Dawson TL (2005). “The function of sebaceous gland exercise and scalp microfloral metabolism within the etiology of seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff”. J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 10 (3): 194–7. doi:10.1111/j.1087-0024.2005.10104.x. PMID 16382662.
  13. ^ Ashbee HR, Evans EG (2002). “Immunology of Illnesses Related to Malassezia Species”. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 15 (1): 21–57. doi:10.1128/CMR.15.1.21-57.2002. PMC 118058. PMID 11781265.
  14. ^ Batra R, Boekhout T, Guého E, Cabañes FJ, Dawson TL, Gupta AK (2005). “Malassezia Baillon, rising medical yeasts”. FEMS Yeast Res. 5 (12): 1101–13. doi:10.1016/j.femsyr.2005.05.006. PMID 16084129.
  15. ^ a b Dawson TL (2006). “Malassezia and seborrheic dermatitis: etiology and remedy”. Journal of Beauty Science. 57 (2): 181–2. PMID 16758556.
  16. ^ Gemmer CM, DeAngelis YM, Theelen B, Boekhout T, Dawson Jr TL (2002). “Quick, Noninvasive Methodology for Molecular Detection and Differentiation of Malassezia Yeast Species on Human Pores and skin and Software of the Methodology to Dandruff Microbiology”. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40 (9): 3350–7. doi:10.1128/JCM.40.9.3350-3357.2002. PMC 130704. PMID 12202578.
  17. ^ Gupta AK, Batra R, Bluhm R, Boekhout T, Dawson TL (2004). “Pores and skin illnesses related to Malassezia species”. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51 (5): 785–98. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2003.12.034. PMID 15523360.
  18. ^ “Genetic code of dandruff cracked”. BBC Information. 6 November 2007. Archived from the unique on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  19. ^ Pierard-Franchimont C, Hermanns JF, Degreef H, Pierard GE (2006). “Revisiting dandruff”. Int J Cosmet Sci. 28 (5): 311–318. doi:10.1111/j.1467-2494.2006.00326.x. PMID 18489295. S2CID 24519401.
  20. ^ Pierard-Franchimont C, Hermanns JF, Degreef H, Pierard GE. From axioms to new insights into dandruff. Dermatology 2000;200:93-8.
  21. ^ Brannon, Heather. “The Construction and Perform of the Stratum Corneum”. Dermatology.about.com. Archived from the unique on 24 Might 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  22. ^ Milani, M; Antonio Di Molfetta, S; Gramazio, R; Fiorella, C; Frisario, C; Fuzio, E; Marzocca, V; Zurilli, M; Di Turi, G; Felice, G (2003). “Efficacy of betamethasone valerate 0.1% thermophobic foam in seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp: An open-label, multicentre, potential trial on 180 sufferers”. Present Medical Analysis and Opinion. 19 (4): 342–5. doi:10.1185/030079903125001875. PMID 12841928. S2CID 20044143.
  23. ^ GENERIC NAME(S): Coal TarFind Lowest Costs (16 August 2017). “Anti-Dandruff (coal tar)“. WebMD. Archived from the unique on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  24. ^ “dandruff | dandriff, n.” OED On-line. Oxford College Press, March 2015. Net. Retrieved 27 April 2015.

Exterior hyperlinks[edit]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *