Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Arts and Crafts/Knitting

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Arts and Crafts
Basic Convention
See additionally Knitting – Superior
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12 months of Introduction: 1970

1. Outline the next[edit]

These abbreviations are a type of shorthand used to explain knitting patterns. Although the requirement is to outline them, additionally it is prudent to learn to do them as properly. Certainly, the remainder of this honor is not going to be doable with out at the least studying the knit (Okay) and purl (P) stitches.

a. Okay[edit]

Okay is the abbreviation for the Okaynit sew. The knit sew is the essential sew utilized in knitting. It may be mixed with the purl sew (see under) to kind attention-grabbing patterns.

b. P[edit]

P is the abbreviation for the Purl sew. A purl sew is the backwards model of a knit sew. A row of purl stitches would look identical to a row of knit stitches when seen from the other facet.

c. STS[edit]

STS is the abbreviation for Stitches.

d. RND[edit]

RND is the abbreviation for spherical. A spherical is a row of stitches, both going all the best way throughout the work (when it’s knitted within the flat), or going all the best way round a tube (when it’s knitted within the spherical).

e. TOG[edit]

TOG is the abbreviation for knit Together. It’s a technique for decreasing the variety of stitches in a row. See the part under on DECcreasing.

f. PSSO[edit]

PSSO is the abbreviation for Pass Slipped Stitch Over. This can be a technique of lowering the variety of stitches. See the part under on DECcreasing.

g. INC[edit]

INC is the abbreviation for Increase or Increasing. In knitting, a rise is the creation of a number of new stitches, which can be performed by numerous strategies with distinctive seems.

Strategies of Growing[edit]

  • Yarn-over improve or “eyelet improve”—The best improve is to do a yarn-over between two present stitches. On subsequent rows, the yarn-over shall be knitted, making a brand new sew. This drawback of this technique is {that a} small gap (eyelet) is produced on the yarn-over. This may be improved by twisting the yarn-over sew – just like a “make one” (under).
  • Raised Improve — Elevate the strand connecting two knitted stitches within the row under onto the left needle (successfully producing a yarn-over) and knit it, both usually or twisted. This technique (particularly if twisted) leaves nearly no gap, since forming the yarn-over sew from the (presumably tight) connecting strand attracts the 2 neighboring stitches collectively.
  • Bar improve — Knit the sew usually however with out transferring the knitted sew to the proper needle; the identical sew is then knitted via the again loop. (Knitting via the entrance loop once more isn’t possible, since it will undo the primary sew.) This improve makes a bar or a nub on the material.
  • Moss improve — Knit the sew usually however with out transferring the knitted sew to the proper needle; the identical sew is then purled. This improve makes a bar or nub on the material.
  • Lifted Improve — For a right-side improve, knit into the proper leg of the sew of the row under the subsequent sew to be knit, then knit the subsequent sew. For a left-side improve, knit one sew, then knit into the left leg of the sew of the row under it. This sort of improve may be visually delicate.
  • “Make One” (M1) — Place a half-hitch loop on the needle between two stitches, both earlier than or after, and twisted both left or proper, relying on desired impact.
  • Column of Will increase — A second strand of yarn or roving is handed up the piece. The second strand is used to make an additional sew in every row by knitting a doubled sew up from the decrease row. The ensuing piece has yet one more sew in every row and every row is within the form of an inverted V. The column of will increase is used to make sq. sweater yokes.

Lastly, numerous will increase in a row is finest performed by casting on; examples embody buttonholes, and so forth.

h. DEC[edit]

DEC is the abbreviation for Decrease or Decreasing. A lower in knitting is a discount within the variety of stitches, normally completed by suspending the sew to be decreased from one other present sew or by knitting it along with one other sew.

Strategies of Reducing[edit]

When a couple of sew is suspended from a sew, they will cling in several orders. For instance, the primary sew may very well be on high of the second sew (when seen from the proper facet) or the reverse, leaning to the left or the proper. The order of stitches is essential, each for look and for the best way it pulls the material.

  • K2tog (“knit two collectively”) — Work to the 2 stitches to be decreased, insert the right-hand needle into the primary two stitches as if to knit, wrap yarn round needle in regular method, slip the 2 stitches off collectively and drop them. This creates a right-leaning lower.
  • SSK (“slip, slip, knit”) — Work to the 2 stitches to be decreased, slip two stitches one after the other to the right-hand needle, as if to knit; insert the left-hand needle into the 2 stitches from entrance to again, knit the 2 stitches collectively and drop them. This creates a left-leaning lower.
  • S1, K1, PSSO (“slip one, knit one, cross slipped sew over”) — This leads to an analogous look to the SSK however can seem much less tidy. Work to the 2 stitches to be decreased, slip subsequent sew to the right-hand needle as if to knit, knit subsequent sew, cross slipped sew over knit sew. Additionally creates a left-leaning lower.

i. YO[edit]

YO is the abbreviation for Yarn Over. In knitting, a yarn over is method wherein the yarn is handed over the right-hand knitting needle. Normally, the brand new loop is knitted on the subsequent row, both by itself (producing a gap) or along with an adjoining sew (e.g., in “tucked” slip stitches). The yarn-over can also be dropped on the subsequent row, producing an extended stretch of yarn between the stitches of the earlier row. Conversely, the impact of a yarn-over may be obtained by selecting up the yarn between stitches of the earlier row; the distinction is that the yarn then is shorter, and the flanking stitches of the earlier row could also be overly drawn collectively.

The time period “yarn-over” refers solely to the act of wrapping the yarn across the needle, and to not the working of the subsequent present sew. Yarn-overs are sometimes used to extend the variety of stitches, since knitting a yarn-over creates a brand new sew the place none existed beforehand, however doesn’t deplete a sew on the needle. Yarn-overs are additionally widespread in eyelet and lace knitting, since they produce steady holes within the cloth.

There are a number of varieties of yarn-over, relying on what number of instances the yarn is wrapped across the knitting needle and on the course (chirality) with which the yarn is wrapped. Usually, the yarn is wrapped with a right-handed chirality, i.e., counterclockwise when wanting on the right-hand needle point-on. Wrapping the yarn the opposite approach (i.e., left-handedly) will lead to a plaited sew if the sew is knit on the next row.

2. Reveal the next[edit]

a. Solid on[edit]

The one forged on might be the best to be taught, however its a little bit harder to knit evenly with this forged on. The knitted forged on is a bit more troublesome to be taught, however similar to the knit sew, and is a little bit simpler to knit evenly from.

Tutorial movies of methods to do these cast-ons may be discovered right here:

b. Bind off[edit]

The essential knit and fundamental purl bind offs (or cast-offs) are the best and best to be taught. Bear in mind that they do create an edge that’s not as stretchy as different bind-offs may.

Movies of methods to do the essential knit and purl bind-offs may be discovered right here:

c. Cable sew[edit]

Two varieties of cable needles

Cable knitting is a method of knitting wherein the order of stitches is permuted.

For instance, let there be 4 stitches on the needle within the order ABCD. The primary two could also be crossed in entrance of the subsequent two, forming the order CDAB.

To do that, knit till you come to the stitches (ABCD) to be cabled. Assuming we’re approaching ABCD from the proper, we might arrive at sew D first. Slip D & C onto the cabling needle, and retailer them both to the entrance of the work or behind (which one depends upon whether or not you need the left to cross the proper or the proper to cross the left). Then knit stitches B and A onto the proper needle. At this level you’ll be able to slip C & D again onto the left needle after which knit them onto the proper, or you’ll be able to knit them straight off the cabling needle onto the proper needle.

Some knitters choose to switch the stitches to a big security pin or, for a single sew, merely maintain it of their fingers whereas knitting the opposite sew(es). Cable stitches are typically permuted solely on the proper facet, i.e., each different row. Having a spacer row helps the material to “calm down”.

Cable knitting is normally much less versatile and extra dense than typical knitting, having a way more slim gauge. This slim gauge must be thought of when altering from the cable sew to a different sort of knitted cloth. If the variety of stitches isn’t lowered, the second knitted cloth could flare out or pucker, because of its bigger gauge. Thus, ribbed cuffs on an aran sweater could not contract across the wrist or waist, as would usually be anticipated. Conversely, stitches could have to be added to keep up the gauge when altering from one other knitted cloth equivalent to stocking to a cable sample.

Cables are normally performed in stocking sew, with a reverse stocking background, however any mixture will do; for instance, a background seed sew within the areas bounded by cables usually seems putting. One other visually intriguing impact is meta-cabling, the place the cable itself is made up of cables, equivalent to a three-cable plait product of strands which might be themselves 2-cable plaits. In such circumstances, the “interior” cables typically go their separate methods, forming lovely, advanced patterns such because the branches of a tree. One other attention-grabbing impact is to have one cable “pierce” one other cable, somewhat than having it cross over or below the opposite.

Two cables ought to cross one another utterly in a single row; for instance, two cables three stitches broad ought to cross with the three stitches of 1 cable passing over the three of the opposite cable. It is rather troublesome to make an intermediate crossing row of fewer stitches look good.

d. Ribbing[edit]

In knitting, ribbing is a sample wherein vertical stripes of stockinette sew alternate with vertical stripes of reverse stockinette sew. These two varieties of stripes could also be separated by different stripes wherein knit and purl stitches alternate vertically; such plissé stripes add width and depth to ribbing however no more elasticity.

The variety of knit and purl stripes (wales) are typically equal, though they needn’t be. When they’re equal, the material has no tendency to twist, not like stockinette sew. Such ribbing seems the identical on each side and is helpful for clothes equivalent to scarves.

Ribbing is notated by (variety of knit stitches) x (variety of purl stitches). Thus, 1×1 ribbing has one knit sew, adopted by one purl sew, adopted by one knit sew, and so forth.

Ribbing has a powerful tendency to contract laterally, forming small pleats wherein the purl stitches recede and the knit stitches come ahead. Thus, ribbing is usually used for cuffs, sweater hems and, extra typically, any edge that must be form-fitting. The elasticity depends upon the variety of knit/purl transitions; 1×1 ribbing is extra elastic than 2×2 ribbing, and so forth. Nonetheless, some cable patterns could “pull in” greater than ribbing (i.e., have a smaller gauge); in such circumstances, a ribbed border could flare out as an alternative of contracting.

Slip stitches could also be added to extend the depth of the ribbing, and to intensify the stitches of sure wales. For instance, the knit stitches may be slipped each different row to double their peak and make them come ahead.

Ribs may be adorned with almost any motif used for a plain knitted cloth, e.g., bobbles, cables, lace, numerous colours, and so forth.

e. Garter sew[edit]

Garter sew is probably the most fundamental type of welting (as seen from the proper facet). Within the spherical, garter sew is produced by knitting and purling alternate rows. In contrast, within the flat, garter sew is produced by knitting each sew (or purling each sew, although that is a lot much less widespread).

In garter-stitch materials, the “purl” rows stand out from the “knit” rows, which gives the idea for shadow knitting. Garter-stitch cloth has important lengthwise elasticity and little tendency to twist, as a result of symmetry of its faces.

f. Stockinette sew[edit]

Stockinette sew (within the UK, Stocking Sew) is probably the most fundamental knitted cloth; each sew (as seen from the proper facet) is a knit sew. Within the spherical, stockinette sew is produced by knitting each sew; in contrast, within the flat, stockinette sew is produced by knitting and purling alternate rows.

Stockinette-stitch cloth could be very easy and every column (“wale”) resembles a stacked set of “V”‘s. It has a powerful tendency to twist horizontally and vertically due to the asymmetry of its faces.

Reverse stockinette sew is produced in the identical approach as stockinette, besides that the purl stitches are performed on the proper facet and the knit stitches on the fallacious facet. Within the spherical, reverse stockinette sew is produced by purling each sew.

g. Choose up a dropped sew[edit]

It’s best to select up a dropped sew by utilizing a crochet hook. On this case, the dropped sew was a knitted sew (not a purled sew). For a purled sew, the crochet hook could be inserted from the again of the loop as an alternative of via the entrance.

3. Know methods to take care of these sorts of yarn[edit]

a. Wool[edit]

Wool is delicate to agitation and scorching water, which causes the overlapping scales of the fiber to stay collectively, what we name shrinking, or, if we do it on function, felting.

To keep away from this, wools must be washed in lukewarm water with little agitation. Most individuals choose to clean wool objects by hand to keep away from any risk of felting after they cannot see what’s occurring inside their washer.

b. Hair[edit]

Yarn can (and is) spun from the hair of many animals, together with rabbits (angora) and canine (chiengora). The Native People that lived within the Northwest portion of america bred canine in order that their hair may very well be spun into yarn and utilized in making exceptionally heat clothes.

Clothes comprised of hair ought to solely be washed if they’re dirty. Wash in heat water with a gentle liquid detergent (equivalent to dish detergent) or shampoo. It shouldn’t be agitated. Fill a basin, flip off the water, after which add the garment to the basin. Care should be taken that water isn’t sprayed on the garment. Extra water must be squeezed out, and the garment can then be rolled in a towel. Lay it flat to dry, and by no means put it in a dryer.

c. Artificial[edit]

Synthetics are well-suited for the numerous at present well-liked novelty yarns, and their vary is huge. Producers frequently try to make artificial yarns that mimic the very best properties of the pure fibers. Synthetics are typically sturdy, water resistant, and powerful, however may also be considerably non-breathable and non-insulating. Most are machine cleanable, however are very delicate to warmth, and they’re going to soften or burn at pretty low temperatures. Nonetheless, knitters can’t assist however be drawn to their seductive textures and wealthy colours.

Polyester: Polyester is comprised of a gaggle of condensation polymers. It’s resilient, easy, crisp, and springy. It may be formed with warmth and is insensitive to moisture. It’s light-weight, robust, and proof against creasing, shrinking, and stretching. It’s properly washable, and isn’t broken by daylight, climate, moths, or mildew. Polyester could be very usually mixed with different fibers.

Acrylic: Acrylic is an artificial polymer cloth or yarn, and is light-weight and heat with a really wool-like really feel. Though it’s proof against moths, oils, and chemical compounds, it’s susceptible to static and pilling. 100% acrylic yarns generally is a bit “cheap-looking,” if not chosen with care.

Nylon: Nylon was the primary utterly artificial fiber. It’s robust and proof against many chemical compounds and moths. Additionally it is straightforward to clean and could be very non-absorbent. It may be a bit scratchy if not blended with one other fiber.

Viscose / Rayon: Viscose is a man-made fiber product of wooden or cotton cellulose handled with sodium hydroxide to make a liquid that may be extruded as cellophane or rayon yarn. Rayon fiber is kind of absorbent, dyes very properly, is smooth, and has a pleasant drape. Though it might shrink, it doesn’t soften at excessive temperatures, and it’s proof against moths, bleach, and lots of widespread family chemical compounds. Rayon thread is divisible, shiny, and good for mixing, however isn’t exhausting sporting.

4. Present methods to be part of on a brand new ball of yarn.[edit]

A brand new ball of yarn is hooked up to the working yarn with a easy overhand knot. This knot serves to carry the brand new yarn in place till a size of it has been knitted into the material. The top of each the previous yarn and the brand new yarn are then trimmed and woven in.

5. Determine and know the aim of the next weights of yarn[edit]

a. Medium[edit]

Worsted Weight (additionally referred to as Afghan or Aran) yarn is a medium weight yarn that’s used for a variety of initiatives. Thick grownup sized clothes (equivalent to sweaters, gloves, scarves, and so forth.) and residential objects (equivalent to pillows, afghans, blankets, dishcloths, and so forth.)are usually comprised of worsted weight yarn. Worsted weight is used when objects must be comparatively sturdy, and thick, however not cumbersome. Needle sizes 7-9 are really helpful to be used with worsted weight yarn, with a gauge of 4-5 stitches per inch in stockinette sew.

b. Sports activities[edit]

Sport weight (additionally referred to as heavy child weight, or advantageous) yarn is used to create objects with a little bit extra weight than sock yarn, however lighter weight than DK yarn. Child clothes, mild mittens, and lightweight blankets are examples of things normally knit from sport weight yarn. The really helpful needle measurement for sport weight yarn is 1-3, with a gauge of 7-Eight stitches per inch in stockinette sew.

c. Heavy[edit]

Chunky additionally referred to as craft, or rug weight) is a heavy/cumbersome weight yarn (to not be confused with Cumbersome, or Roving, which is a brilliant cumbersome weight yarn). It’s a thick yarn that works up shortly on giant needles, so if you do not have hours to spend on a brand new scarf, this can be a good selection for one thing thick and heat, but additionally quick. It may also be used to make a fast throw or blanket.

Needle measurement: US 9 – 11 (5.5mm – 8mm)

Hook measurement: US Okay10 1/3 – M13 (6.5mm – 9mm)

d. Tremendous Cumbersome[edit]

Cumbersome or Roving, is a brilliant cumbersome weight yarn used for terribly thick, in a short time knitted objects, equivalent to very heavy hats, coats and scarves. It is strongly recommended that objects knitted in roving are performed with needles sized 11 or better, with an ordinary gauge of 1.5 – 2 stitches per inch.

6. Knit two objects from the next: a. Slippers b. Mittens c. Child booties d. Hat e. Scarff. Sleeveless sweater g. Cheap selection[edit]

A mess of free patterns may be discovered at


A shawl is probably the best knitting challenge doable. If tremendous cumbersome yarn is used with 12mm needles, the headband may be knitted shortly which helps to abate any endurance issues your Pathfinders may need.

  • Begin by casting on 12 stitches.
  • Knit each row (forming a garter sew) till the headband’s size exceeds the knitter’s endurance.
  • Bind off.

Cheap selections[edit]

Listed here are some affordable selections you may take into account:

There are many free patterns for socks at
Leg heaters
Leg heaters are nothing greater than open tubes. This might be a very good challenge for cabling.
Draft blocker
A draft blocker is positioned on the ground by a door to stop drafts. It’s a sealed tube full of some heavy stuffing materials (equivalent to florist’s pebbles).
Seat cowl
A seat cowl can be utilized to supply a softer seat on a tough chair.
Pot holder
A pot holder is nothing greater than a sq. upon which scorching pots could also be positioned. You’ll want to select a yarn that won’t soften (wool or cotton, not acrylic). Don’t use a stockinette sew, as this can trigger the completed product to twist unacceptably. Reasonably, use a garter sew or ribbing.


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